Case studies

Nestle's coffee production

Planning / Implementation / Main components

Star Refrigeration Ltd.


ammonia (NH3) / secondary refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO2)

System start-up


Nestle UK has been producing chocolate since 1913, and more recently coffee, including the world famous Nescafe brand, in Hayes, Middlesex. In order to comply with environmental standards the refrigeration plant was to be upgraded.


The freeze drying line was installed in the 1960's and used the greenhouse gas R22. Additional challenges were posed by the existing production lines and the traditional style of the art deco building.


A large, low temperature industrial refrigeration system has been commissioned using a cascade between ammonia and carbon dioxide as the working fluids in the plant.

Technical data:


Type of facility

NH3 / CO2 cascade refrigeration plant



Refrigerant volume

5,000 kg



Refrigerant volume

20,000 kg

No. of refrigeration compressors

four NH3, four CO2

Refrigerant temperature

2 low temperature levels at -48 °C and -54 °C, small side load at -16 °C

Refrigerating capacity

2,400 kW

Main components

CO2 pump sets, condenser, receiver, Ammonia plant

Special features / Comments

The pipework is all stainless steel which gives some benefits in corrosion resistance but more important ensures the high strength of the pipes at low temperatures.


Star Refrigeration Ltd.
Andy Pearson
Thornliebank Industrial Estate
Glasgow G46 8JW
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 (0)141 638 7916
Fax: +44 (0)141 638 8111
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.